Thursday, December 12, 2019

Sociological Theories and Gang Violence Essay Example For Students

Sociological Theories and Gang Violence Essay SOCIALOGICAL THEORIES and GANG VIOLENCE Abstract The sociological analysis of gang membership explores the different types of effects that arise due to criminal involvement. Because of the social conflicts that are associated with gang membership, this paper will explore the different theories of social learning and both personal and control issues that relate to the recent surge in crime across Chicago. As we open the doors of a crime ridden society, the truth begins to unfold. It isnt Just the thought of helping, it is the action that remains the barrier between living a life of crime or a life that carries hope. The number of violent encounters has readily declined, yet, violence has flooded the streets of Chicago, Illinois. In 2012 there were over five hundred murders committed in the city of Chicago alone (Lemmer, Bunsinger, Lurigio, 2008). The desensitization of communities have become more apparent as the acceptance of gang activity has become part of the norm. Observation of vicarious behavior by other social groups suggest that the rationalization of choice is desired, so long as gangs conform bonds across city streets (Lilly,Cullen, Ball, 2011). Predicting the future is not too far- fetched, when it comes to socialization. Many theorists suggest that society cant anora acceptance 0T crlme wltnout accepting some responslDlllty Resulting Trom tne absence of internalized rules and regulations, criminal behavior is governed by the justice system (Lilly,Cullen, Ball, 2011). Stepping deeper into the recent gang activities, that have prevailed in society within Chicago, former Gangster Disciple Harold Ward, speaks of the corruption among leaders in the city and their approval of the cartels from Mexico who have taken over their society as a whole (Pundit, 2013). Whether people agree or disagree, social disorganization among their neighborhoods s one of the dominant perspectives that defines criminalization of gang members. In order for the decriminalization to occur there needs to be further organized programs within the communities across our nation. I continue to speak of the statistics about Chicago, but there is more than Just one city across the United States that suffer the threat of gang violence every day. According to FBI statistics, there are 1. 4 million active gang members in the United States today. Statistics show that although gang violence has decreased overall in numbers, it still remains prevalent in many neighborhoods today. Murder rates have soared over the past few years on the streets of Chicago (Lemmer, Bunsinger, Lurigio, 2008). In fact, in 2012, the city of Chicago had over 400 murders of which 80% is gang related. These murders occurred because of gangs fghting over turf, attempting to uphold their reputation, and retaliation against one another. According to former gang member Harold Noonie Ward, the violence on the streets of Chicago stem from the Mexican drug cartels. He believes that the city of Chicago has become a haven for these cartels to place their people. Even though many of the higher ranking members of the gangs re locked up, the mass amount of drugs entering Chicago has not seized. Noonie believes that there are many officials who are profiting from the drugs that are being brought in and thus refusing to make it stop (Pundit, 2013). News reports show that in Chicago alone there are 100,000 gang members per every 12,000 police officers (Rosenzweig, 2013). These are obvious numbers that outweigh one another. On a national level 40% of all homicides (in major cities) were gang related and in 2011 gang members were responsible for 61% of homicides. The average age of gang members ranges from sixteen to nineteen, but some members are as young as hirteen. There was a 25% increase in gang activity in Chicago from 2009-2012 (Rosenzweig, 2013). The idea of violence and deviance has been long misunderstood. There have been several theorist that have taken their knowledge and created their own ideology of why an individual turns to violence as a way of life. Based on Ronald Akers ideology of social learning theory, many people commit crimes based on the observations they encounter. These observations can come from a number of sources such as, media, family, and peers. Family and friends as well as the social norms of a neighborhood can be influential to an individual because of cceptance. This theory also says that based on positive or negative reinforcements an individuals behavior will be based on the rewards or punishments that are given. If given an opportunity to change the violence that occurs among neighborhoods there are many who choose to do so (Akers, 1990). Social control and social learning both suggest that behavior is a choice based . However, when looking at the two theories they actually take a different stance. Social learning theory suggests that individuals Join gangs to feel that sense of security as well as living the glamorized IITestyle ana tnelr attempt to Till tne vola 0T an aosent parent. Soclal learning tneory Is best stated as learned behavior based on the environmental and social attachment that one has to a community. Social learning is telling us that people have a choice to make a rationalized decision based on their observations of others, but remain adamant to state that their interactions with the social surroundings will be taken into consideration as well (Lilly, Cullen, Ball, 2011). Social and personal Control, by Reiss suggest that deviant behavior is based on the bond that one shares with their social surroundings. An individuals defiance through socialization is questioned when determining how an individual reacts to the commitment that they have to their social surroundings. It also says that being a disappointment to their peers is a prominent indication of social control (Russell, 2006). An individual at this level will continue to be involved in a certain behavior as long as the social environment in which they encounter continues to be a believer of moral acceptance. Social behavior based on any given neighborhood can be predicted in theory, but having the ability to predict the factual outcome of a situation is implausible. Statistical facts give us an idea of the average range of where the violence is heading, but there are ways to change that (Chibnal Abbruzzese, 2004). Gang violence is not a limited issue, it is prevalent within many types of neighborhoods and different social classes. As much as we want to believe that the gangs are only in bad areas, we cant provide proof of just that. Sure there may be more gangs in a certain area based on the economical status, but that doesnt make it nonexistent for the high class. The flourishment of gangs in certain areas has been taken out of existence. A community must allow for esources to be allocated to prevent criminal activity among those involved. Another reason that people Join gangs is for financial security (Wyrick Howell, 2004). The Tragic Consequences of the Rebellion on Animal Farm Sample EssayRonald Akers and Albert Reiss may have walked into their theories with a different thinking, however after being researched, there were many areas in which both criminal justice and sociological connections bonded them as theorists. A social bond within a community, a fght to uphold their reputation, and being able to feel a sense of closeness within the refined family individuals Join gangs. Having the internalization of morals and guidance provides a foundation for those who are willing to give up the street life. The likelihood of reducing criminal activity among rural streets is not Just going to happen in one day, but it is going to take time and effort by a community who is willing and able to make a change. As we have looked into the two theories we have learned that indirectly they have an effect on one another. Crime and delinquency results from the lack of parenting , the lack of rules and regulations, unconfirmed social systems that emphasize morals, and established conformity among a community. In order for a community to be able to employ acceptance of techniques and measures as a whole there needs to be some sort of trust in the community. Safety needs to be among the highest of priorities (Lilly, Cullen, Ball, 2011). Gang members need help realizing the impact they have on the community. They need to know that their behaviors are a part of a vicious cycle that will continue to trickle down from one generation to the next. Gang members need to be reminded that there is a chance at change, and it can start with Just one person. The overall aspect of the theories is that if we enable children to learn in better environments, provide sufficient education, and instill values and morals to them at a young age, that we may be able to prevent them from conforming to gang life. Criminal Justice response needs to outweigh the bad with the good. They need to provide offenders with the stability they need before they are released back into the community. Young offenders need to be nourished and taught right from wrong in a egal perspective. Offenders need to be able to have to opportunity at change before they are Just thrown back out there with no security, no support, and no insight to how the current economy survives. Sociological reasons to crime can be defined in many different manners, but to Just accept them as the norm needs to be taken out as an option to these communities (Lilly, Cullen, Ball, 2011). People need to stop hurting each, and people need to start living for what life is really about. ReTerences Akers, R. L. (1990). Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken. The Journal Of Criminal Law And Criminology (1973-), (3), 653. dot:10. 2307/1143850 Akers, R. L. (1996). IS DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION/SOCIAL LEARNING CULTURAL DEVIANCE THEORY?. cnmtnology, 34(2), 229-247. Borade, G. , (2013) Theory of Social Control. Retrieved from http:// www. buzzle. com/articles/theory-of-social-control. html Chibnall, S. H. , Abbruzzese, K. (2004). A community approach to reducing risk factors. Juvenile Justice Causes and Correlates: Findings and Implications, IX(I), 30-31. Retrieved from https:// www. ncJrs. gov/html/oJJdp/203555/JJ4. html Chibnall, S. H. , Abbruzzese, K. (2004). Risk and protective factors of child delinquency. Juvenile Justice Causes and Correlates: Findings and Implications, IX(I), 30-31. Retrieved from https:// www. ncJrs. gov/html/oJJdp/203555/JJ5. html Dnes, A. W. , Garoupa, N. (2010). Behavior, 1467-6435. 2010. 00485. x Egley, A. J. , Howell, J. C. U. S. Department of justice, Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2013). Working for youth Justice and safety Juvenile Justice fact sheet: Highlights of the 2011 national youth gang survey. Retrieved from website: http://www. oJJdp. gov/pubs/ 242884. pdf James, S. Producer), Kotlowitz, A. (Director) (2012). The interruptors . Retrieved from http://www. pbs. org/searchnq=the interrupters documentary Lemmer, T. J. , Bensinger, G. J. , Lurigio, A. J. (2008). An analysis of police responses to gangs in Chicago. Police Practice Research, 9(5), 417-430. dot: 10. 1080/15614260801980836 Lilly,J. R. , cullen, F. T. , Ball, R. A. (2011). cnmtnologtcal sage PuDllcatlons Inc. L I WlnTree r, v g -BacKstrom ; L Mays. U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs (n. d. ). (NC] 146456). Retrieved from website: https://www. ncJrs. gov/App/Publications/abstract. spx? lD=146456 Prather, W. , Golden, J. A. (2009). Learning and Thinking: A Behavioral Treatise on Abuse and Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminal Offenders. International Journal Of Behavioral Consultation Therapy, 5(1), 75. Pratt, T. C. , Cullen, F. T. , Sellers, C. S. , Thomas Winfree, L. L. , Madensen, T. D. , Daigle, L. E. , Gau,J. M. (2010). The Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory: A Meta-Analysis. JQ: Justice Quarterly, 27(6), 765. otno. 1080/07418820903379610 pundit, R. (2013, October 12). Former high-ranking gang member: Drug cartels allowed to run chicago streets. Breitbart. Retrieved from http://www. breitbart. com/Big-Government/2013/10/11 /Ex-Gangster- Disciple-Drug-Cartels-Allowed-to-Run-Rahm-s-Chicago-Streets Reiss, D. , Leve, L. D. , Neiderhiser, J. M. (2013). How G enes and the Social Environment Moderate Each other. At-nencan journal Of public Health, 103(S1), Sl 11-Sl 21 . dot:10. 2105/AJPH. 2013. 301408 Rosenzweig, M. (Artist). (2013, October 18). . Retrieved from Chicago Gang Violence: By The Numbers Russell, B. (2006, November 30). Control theories of crime. Retrieved from http://www. drtomoconnor. com/ 1060/10601ect06b. tm Social Control. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 1968. Retrieved October 25, 2013 from Encyclopedia. com: http:// www. encyclopedia. com/doc/162-3045001156. html Social Learning Perspective. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2008. Encyclopedia. com. 25 Oct. 2013 http://www. encyclopedia. com Thornberry, T. P. , Huizinga, D. , Loeber, R. (2004). The causes and correlate studies:findings and policy implications. IX(I), 9-16. Retrieved from https://www. nc]rs. gov/pdffilesl/oJJdp/203555. pdf Welch, M. Tittle, C. , Yonkoski, J. , Meidinger, N. Grasmick, H. (2008). Social Integration, Self-control, and Conformity. Journal Of Quantitative Criminology, 24(1), 73-92. doi:10. 1007/ S10940-007-9039-x wood, J. L. , Alleyne, E. , Mozova, K. , James, M. (2013). predicting Involvement in Prison Gang Activity: Street Gang Membership, Social and Psychological Factors. Law And Human Behavior, doi:10. 1037/lhb0000053 Wyrick, P. A. , Howell, J. C. (2004). strategic risk-based response to youth gangs. Juvenile Justice Causes and Correlates: Findings and Implications,lX(1), Retrieved from https:// www. ncJrs. gov/html/oJJdp/203555/JJ3. html

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